01 Year in Focus

Europe’s growing dependence on Russian gas, 1970–2020 Global Energy Monitor


02 Power

Global electricity emissions Ember
Developed vs developing countries’ power emissions Ember
Year-over-year change in electricity emissions Climate TRACE analysis of Ember data
Global emissions intensity of electricity production Ember
Global electricity generation by source IEA Electricity Information
Nuclear power as % of global electricity generation IEA Global Energy Review 2021
Levelised cost of electricity comparison Lazard Levelized Cost of Energy Analysis 15.0


03 Transportation

Global electric car sales IEA Global EV Outlook 2022
Global electric car market share IEA Global EV Outlook 2022
Global price of lithium carbonate Bloomberg Finance L.P.
Number of available electric car models IEA Global EV Outlook 2022
Global publicly available EV charging points IEA Global EV Outlook 2022
Electric buses as a share of bus sales in China IEA Global EV Outlook 2022


04 Buildings

Direct building emissions, plus emissions from power and heat used in buildings IPCC Sixth Assessment Report
Energy efficiency investment in buildings IEA Energy Efficiency 2021


05 Industry

Global demand for materials IEA Tracking Industry 2021
Direct emissions from industry and indirect emissions from electricity and heat production IPCC Sixth Assessment Report


06 Land & Food

Tropical primary forest loss Global Forest Watch
Red-list index (RLI) species diversity Our World in Data: "Red List Index, 2022"


07 Financing the Transition

Global investment in energy transition by country, 2021 BloombergNEF 2022 Energy Transition Investment Trends report
Global investment in climate solutions through 2021, compared to investments needed for a 1.5°C scenario BloombergNEF 2022 Energy Transition Investment Trends report
Destination region of climate finance, 2019/2020 annual average Climate Policy Initiative Global Landscape of Climate Finance 2021
Access to electricity (% of population) World Bank


08 Looking Ahead

Environment vs economy in the public mind Gallup, National Bureau of Economic Research


Generation and Just Climate would like to thank our partners at Applied Works, one of London’s great digital design firms, for their hard work under deadline in helping us to compile this report and present it in a readable form. Mandy Doran, Joe Sharpe, Callum Strachan and Richard Males provided invaluable assistance. Milan Ozegovic and Marco Bernadi at Applied Works did excellent work in producing the Portable Document Format version of the report. We thank Rebecca Keys for proofreading the manuscripts.

We also thank the organizations whose work and data sets we drew on heavily, including Climate Trace, Ember, the International Energy Agency, Our World in Data, Bloomberg New Energy Finance, the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change, and others. At Climate Trace, Gavin McCormick, Christy Lewis and Caleb Dittmar were especially generous with their time; it is to Gavin that we owe the inspiration to examine the declining emissions intensity of global power production. At Ember, Nicolas Fulghum, Matt Ewen and Paweł Czyżak were most helpful. At the IEA, we especially thank Merve Erdem and Arnau Risquez for help locating data from the vast archives of that organization, so indispensable to understanding the world energy landscape. We thank WindEurope, and Giles Dickson in particular, for helpful discussions and data pointers.

Critiques and errata notices are most welcome and can be sent to

Important information

This report has been prepared by Generation Investment Management LLP (“Generation”) for discussion purposes only and reflects the views of Generation as at September 2022. It is not to be reproduced or copied or made available to others without the consent of Generation.

The information presented herein is based on Generation’s analysis of publicly available data, is intended to present a global perspective on different areas that Generation believes represent a sustainable economy and should not be construed as investment research, advice or the making of any recommendation. References to any companies must not be construed as a recommendation to buy securities of such companies.

The jurisdictions and time periods presented herein may vary, as the data shown is what Generation used in its own assessment and believes to be the most complete view to support each identified area of sustainability and the associated trends. 2022 and other historic estimates made throughout the report were extrapolated from cited research and based on previous trends and known current data.

While the data is from sources Generation believes to be reliable, Generation makes no representation as to the completeness or accuracy of the data. Generation shall not be responsible for amending, correcting, or updating any information or opinions contained herein, and we accept no liability for loss arising from the use of the information presented herein.